This document is an older, unmaintained guide. There may be a new guide available for this software.
MySQL is a popular database management system, used as the data storage provider for thousands of web and server applications. This guide will help beginners get started with MySQL on an Ubuntu 10.04 LTS (Lucid) Linux VPS. For purposes of this tutorial, we'll assume you've followed the steps outlined in our getting started guide, that your system is up to date, and that you've logged into your Linode as root via SSH. If you're performing these steps as a standard user with sudo privileges, remember to prepend "sudo" to the commands shown below.
Make sure your /etc/hosts file contains sensible values. In the example file below, you would replace "126.96.36.199" with your Linode's IP address, and "servername.example.com" with your Linode's fully qualifed domain name (FQDN). It is advisable to use something unique and memorable for "servername" in this file.
127.0.0.1 localhost.localdomain localhost 188.8.131.52 servername.example.com servername
Next, make sure your Linode's hostname is set to the short value you specified in /etc/hosts:
echo "servername" > /etc/hostname hostname -F /etc/hostname
To make sure universe repositories are enabled, modify your /etc/apt/sources.list file to mirror the example file below.
## main & restricted repositories deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ lucid main restricted deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ lucid main restricted deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu lucid-security main restricted deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu lucid-security main restricted ## universe repositories deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ lucid universe deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ lucid universe deb http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ lucid-updates universe deb-src http://us.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ lucid-updates universe deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu lucid-security universe deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu lucid-security universe
Make sure your package repositories and installed programs are up to date by issuing the following commands:
apt-get update apt-get upgrade --show-upgraded
Begin by issuing the following command in your terminal:
apt-get install mysql-server
You will be prompted to set a password for the MySQL root user. Choose a strong password and keep it in a safe place for future reference.
The MySQL server package will be installed on your server, along with dependencies and client libraries. After installing MySQL, it's recommended that you run mysql_secure_installation in order to help secure MySQL. While running mysql_secure_installation, you will be presented with the opportunity to change the MySQL root password, remove anonymous user accounts, disable root logins outside of localhost, and remove test databases. It is recommended that you answer yes to these options. If you are prompted to reload the privilege tables, select yes. Run the following command to execute the program:
After running mysql_secure_installation, MySQL is secure and ready to be configured.
By default, MySQL makes some assumptions about your server environment with respect to memory. To configure MySQL more conservatively, you'll need to edit some settings in its configuration file. Your file should resemble the following:
key_buffer = 16M max_allowed_packet = 1M thread_stack = 64K table_cache = 4 sort_buffer = 64K net_buffer_length = 2K
These settings are only suggested values for a low memory environment; please feel free to tune them to appropriate values for your server. Consult the "More Information" section at the end of this tutorial for additional resources on this topic.
MySQL will bind to localhost (127.0.0.1) by default. Please reference our secure MySQL remote access guide for information on connecting to your databases with local clients.
Allowing unrestricted access to MySQL on a public IP is not advised, but you may change the address it listens on by modifying the bind-address parameter. If you decide to bind MySQL to your public IP, you should implement firewall rules that only allow connections from specific IP addresses.
The standard tool for interacting with MySQL is the mysql client program. To get started, issue the following command at your prompt:
mysql -u root -p
You will be prompted to enter the root MySQL user's password. Enter the password you assigned when you installed MySQL, and you'll be presented with the MySQL monitor display:
Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g. Your MySQL connection id is 34 Server version: 5.1.41-3ubuntu12 (Ubuntu) Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement. mysql>
If you've forgotten your root password, use the package reconfiguration tool to change that password:
To generate a list of commands for the MySQL prompt type \h:
List of all MySQL commands: Note that all text commands must be first on line and end with ';' ? (\?) Synonym for `help'. clear (\c) Clear the current input statement. connect (\r) Reconnect to the server. Optional arguments are db and host. delimiter (\d) Set statement delimiter. edit (\e) Edit command with $EDITOR. ego (\G) Send command to mysql server, display result vertically. exit (\q) Exit mysql. Same as quit. go (\g) Send command to mysql server. help (\h) Display this help. nopager (\n) Disable pager, print to stdout. notee (\t) Don't write into outfile. pager (\P) Set PAGER [to_pager]. Print the query results via PAGER. print (\p) Print current command. prompt (\R) Change your mysql prompt. quit (\q) Quit mysql. rehash (\#) Rebuild completion hash. source (\.) Execute an SQL script file. Takes a file name as an argument. status (\s) Get status information from the server. system (\!) Execute a system shell command. tee (\T) Set outfile [to_outfile]. Append everything into given outfile. use (\u) Use another database. Takes database name as argument. charset (\C) Switch to another charset. Might be needed for processing binlog with multi-byte charsets. warnings (\W) Show warnings after every statement. nowarning (\w) Don't show warnings after every statement. For server side help, type 'help contents' mysql>
Let's create a database and assign a user to it. Issue the following commands at the MySQL prompt:
CREATE DATABASE testdb; CREATE USER 'testuser'@localhost IDENTIFIED BY 'changeme'; GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON testdb.* TO 'testuser'@localhost; exit
Now let's log back into the MySQL client as testuser and create a sample table called "customers." Issue the following commands:
mysql -u testuser -p USE testdb; CREATE TABLE customers (customer_id INT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY, first_name TEXT, last_name TEXT);
This creates a table with a customer ID field of the type INT for integer (auto-incremented for new records and used as the primary key), as well as two fields for storing the customer's name.
By default, access to databases will be limited to connections from localhost. To securely administer your databases from a remote location, please follow our guide for securely administering mysql with an SSH tunnel. It is not a good practice to run MySQL on your public IP address, unless you have a very good reason for doing so.
You may wish to consult the following resources for additional information on this topic. While these are provided in the hope that they will be useful, please note that we cannot vouch for the accuracy or timeliness of externally hosted materials.
This guide is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 United States License.
Last edited by Sharon Campbell on Tuesday, September 24th, 2013 (r3686).